Indo-European Phonological Inventory Database

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Old Latvian

Family: Baltic

Region: Baltic region

Time: 16th century C.E.


Labial Dental Palatal Velar
Voiceless stop p t k kʲ
Voiced stop b d g gʲ
Voiceless affricate ts
Voiced affricate dz
Fricative v s z ʃ ʒ
Nasal m n nʲ
Lateral l lʲ
Trill r
Approximant j


Front Central Back
High i iː u uː
Low-mid ɛ ɛː
Low æ æː a aː


ie, uo


  1. Mathiassen (1977) states that what are reported here as /kʲ/ and /gʲ/ (in modern Latvian writing <ķ> and <ğ>) are instead palatalized dental /tʲ/ and /dʲ/.


Dini, Pietro Umberto. 1997. Le lingue baltiche. Firenze: La Nuova Italia.
Mathiassen, Terje. 1997. A Short Grammar of Latvian. Columbus: Slavica Publishers.


Adriano Cerri

Credits: apnetwork