Indo-European Phonological Inventory Database

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Family: Italic

Region: Italy and Roman Empire

Time: 1st century B.C. - 1st century C.E.


Labial Coronal Velar Glottal
Voiceless stop p t k
Voiced stop b d g
Fricative f s h
Nasal m n ŋ
Trill r
Lateral l
Approximant w j


Front Central Back
High i iː u uː
Mid e eː o oː
Low a aː


  1. According to McCullagh (1965:86), it is not possible to ascertain whether the graphic combinations <QV> and <GV> represent single units (the labialised velars [kʷ] and [gʷ]) or combinations of two phonemes ([kw] and [gw]).
  2. McCullagh (1965:87) states that the velar nasal can be considered phonemic, at least with a low functional load, since some minimal pairs can be found.
  3. The loan phonemes /pʰ, tʰ, kʰ, z, y/ are reported by McCullagh (1965).


McCullagh, Matthew. 1965. The sounds of Latin: Phonology. In Allen, W. Sidney (ed.), Vox Latina: A Guide to the Pronounciation of Classical Latin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clackson, James. 2011. A companion to the Latin language. Vol. 82. Wiley-Blackwell.


Stefano Coretta

Credits: apnetwork