Indo-European Phonological Inventory Database

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Old Prussian

Family: Baltic

Region: Prussia

Time: 16th century C.E.


Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Voiceless stop p pʲ t tʲ k kʲ
Voiced stop b bʲ d dʲ g gʲ
Voiceless fricative s sʲ ʃ ʃʲ
Voiced fricative v vʲ z zʲ
Nasal m mʲ n nʲ
Lateral l lʲ
Trill r rʲ
Approximant j


Front Central Back
High i iː u uː
Mid e eː
Low a aː


/ei/, /ai/, /au/, /eu/, /an/, /en/, /in/, /un/, /am/, /em/, /im/, /um/


  1. The existence of /ʃ/ is doubtful for Dini (1997: 252); it is instead regarded as sure by Mažiulis (2004), who compares it with /ʃʲ/. The phonemes /ʃ/ and /ʃʲ/ would be represented graphemically in Prussian texts by <ſch> and would be the development of balt. *s + j, (for example pr. schutuan «il cucire», cfr. lett. šūt).


Dini, Pietro Umberto. 1997. Le lingue baltiche. Firenze: La Nuova Italia.
Mažiulis, Vytautas. 2004. Prusų kalbos istorinė gramatika. Vilnius: Vilniaus universiteto leidykla.


Adriano Cerri

Credits: apnetwork